From hourly to annual time scales, individuals are faced with innumerable decisions that ultimately shape their fitness. These include: habitat selection, foraging strategy, predator avoidance, phenology, and conspecific interaction. These decisions have wide ranging effects on survival and reproductive success. Thus, the processes that determine how, when, and where individuals complete life-cycle events shape their capacity, and ultimately the capacity of the population, to respond to environmental change. We study how the physiology and behavior of individuals is shaped by their environment throughout their full life-cycles. Our previous and ongoing research in this area spans local and international scales and involves collaborations with numerous organizations.